Research Paper Volume 16, Issue 8 pp 7437—7447

Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of NOX4 as a biomarker for pan-cancer prognosis and immune infiltration

Yuying Liu1, *, , Hua Huang2, *, , Xijun Yang3, *, , Danhe Huang1, , Xiongwei Wang1, , Mingyu Yuan1, , Lianqing Hong1, ,

  • 1 Department of Pathology, Nanjing Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital Affiliated with Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China
  • 2 Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China
  • 3 Department of Anesthesiology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China
* Equal contribution and share first authorship

Received: November 27, 2023       Accepted: March 26, 2024       Published: April 25, 2024
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2024 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) has been proven to be associated with the prognosis of tumors in multiple cancers and can serve as a potential immunotherapy target to provide new treatment options for various tumors. In this study, our aim is to conduct an in-depth investigation of NOX4 across a range of cancer types to determine the relationship between NOX4 and tumors.

Methods: Utilizing large-scale transcriptomic and clinical data from public databases, a systematic examination of NOX4 expression patterns was performed in pan-cancer cohorts. Survival analysis, methylation analysis, and correlation studies were employed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic significance of NOX4 in diverse cancer types. Additionally, an exploration of the relationship between NOX4 expression and immune infiltration across various tumors was conducted.

Results: The analyses unveiled a consistent upregulation of NOX4 expression in multiple cancer types relative to normal tissues, indicating its potential as a universal cancer biomarker. Elevated NOX4 expression significantly correlated with poor overall survival in several cancers. Furthermore, the study demonstrated a robust correlation between NOX4 expression and immune cell infiltration, signifying its involvement in the modulation of the tumor microenvironment.

Conclusions: This study imparts valuable insights into the potential applications of NOX4 in cancer research, highlighting its significance as a multifaceted biomarker with diagnostic, prognostic, and immunomodulatory implications across diverse malignancies.


ACC: Adrenocortical carcinoma; BLCA: Bladder urothelial carcinoma; BRCA: Breast invasive carcinoma; CESC: Cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma; CHOL: Cholangiocarcinoma; COAD: Colon adenocarcinoma; COADREAD: Colon adenocarcinoma/Rectum adenocarcinoma esophageal carcinoma; DLBC: Lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; ESCA: Esophageal carcinoma; FPPP: FFPE Pilot Phase II; GBM: Glioblastoma multiforme; GBMLGG: Glioma; HNSC: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; KICH: Kidney chromophobe; KIPAN: Pan-kidney cohort (KICH+KIRC+KIRP); KIRC: Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma; KIRP: Kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma; LAML: Acute myeloid leukemia; LGG: Brain lower grade glioma; LIHC: Liver hepatocellular carcinoma; LUAD: Lung adenocarcinoma; LUSC: Lung squamous cell carcinoma; MESO: Mesothelioma; OV: Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma; PAAD: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma; PCPG: Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma; PRAD: Prostate adenocarcinoma; READ: Rectum adenocarcinoma; SARC: Sarcoma; STAD: Stomach adenocarcinoma; SKCM: Skin cutaneous melanoma; STES: Stomach and esophageal carcinoma; TGCT: Testicular germ cell tumors; THCA: Thyroid carcinoma; THYM: Thymoma; UCEC: Uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma; UCS: Uterine carcinosarcoma; UVM: Uveal melanoma; OS: Osteosarcoma; ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; NB: Neuroblastoma; WT: High-Risk Wilms Tumor.