Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 2 pp 536—548

Geniposide-mediated protection against amyloid deposition and behavioral impairment correlates with downregulation of mTOR signaling and enhanced autophagy in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

Figure 3. Geniposide improves learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. (A) Escape latency in the MWM’s place navigation test was significantly longer in APP/PS1 mice compared to WT on days 3–5, and shortened by day 5 in mice treated with geniposide. (B) Path length (swimming distance) was longer in APP/PS1 mice than in WT mice on days 3–5, and shortened by day 5 in geniposide-treated mice. (C) The number of crossings over the area where the escape platform was previously located (spatial probe test) was decreased in APP/PS1 mice compared to WT. This decrease was partly reversed after geniposide treatment. (D) The time spent in the target quadrant was decreased in APP/PS1 mice compared to WT, and this was partly improved by geniposide. (E) Swimming speed did not differ between groups. (F) Swimming time to arrive at visible platform did not differ between groups. (G) Swimming tracks. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 13–15). ***p < 0.001 vs. WT; #p < 0.05 vs. geniposide-treated APP/PS1 mice (two-way ANOVA, Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test). WT: wild-type mice. GP: geniposide.