Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 10 pp 2949—2967

Tryptophan-related dipeptides in fermented dairy products suppress microglial activation and prevent cognitive decline

Figure 1. Effects of the fractions and peptides on inflammatory response and phagocytic activity in microglia. Casein protein was digested by using enzyme and fractionated by using a solid-phase column with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% methanol. (A) Chromatograph of each fraction using HPLC. (B, C) Effects of each fraction of methanol elution and dipeptides of WY and WM on inflammatory responses determined by using CD11b-positive primary microglia, respectively. The TNF-α production in supernatant of microglia culture pretreated with each fraction and dipeptides and then treated with LPS. (D, E) Effects of each fraction and the dipeptides on phagocytosis of Aβ determined by using CD11b-positive primary microglia, respectively. The intracellular fluorescence of Aβ-FAM in the microglia treated with each sample. Data are means ± SEM of 3–5 wells per sample. The p-values were calculated by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01.