Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 12 pp 4107—4124

Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage by inhibiting GSK-3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 1. GSPs alleviated STZ-induced neuron loss and apoptosis in primary mouse cortical neurons. (A, B) Neurons were treated with different concentrations of STZ (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mM) (A) or GSPs (0.1, 1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μg/mL) for 24 h (B). (C) Neurons were pre-incubated with GSPs (0.1, 1, 10, 25 and 50 μg/mL) for 2 h prior to being exposed to 0.5 mM STZ for 24 h. (D) Cell apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining. (scale bar = 100 μm). (E) Quantitative analysis of TUNEL staining. *P < 0.05 vs CON; #P < 0.05 vs STZ, n=4.