Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 16 pp 5924—5942

Cognitive impairment in heart failure is associated with altered Wnt signaling in the hippocampus


Figure 3. Heart failure (HF) rats display spatial learning decline. (A) Representative cartoon showing the rat and platform position in the pool. (B) Representative trajectory heat maps obtained from one Sham rat and one HF rat during Water Maze test between 1 to 5 days. Pseudocolor intensity indicate the time latency that the rat remained swimming in the pool searching for the platform. It is noteworthy that HF rats spends more time searching the platform across all experimental days compared to Sham animals. (C) Summary data of test duration during all experimental days. Note that HF rats required more time to find the platform. (D) Summary data of mean distance travelled during all experimental days. HF rats travel more distance compared to Sham animals. (E) Compared to Sham rats, HF animals display a decreased path efficiency in day 3 and 5. (F) Sham and HF rats display similar speed in all experimental days. &, p<0.05 vs. Sham day 1; +, p<0.05 vs. HF day 1; #, p<0.05 vs. Sham; two-way ANOVA following Holm Sidak test. n=6 rats per group.