Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 1. Effect of ANE and arecoline on MMP-9 expression/secretion of SAS cells. (A) Effect of ANE (100-800 μg/ml) and (B) Arecoline (0.1-0.8 mM) on MMP-9 mRNA expression in SAS oral cancer epithelial cells as analyzed by RT-PCR. One representative semi-quantitative RT-PCR result was shown. (C) Effect of ANE (50-800 μg/ml) on MMP-9 secretion of SAS cells, after 3 days of exposure, (D) Effect of arecoline (0.05-0.8 mM) on MMP-9 secretion of SAS cells after 3 days of exposure, Results were expressed as Mean ± SE (pg/ml), (E) Effect of ANE (100-800 μg/ml) on cytotoxicity to SAS cells, (F) Effect of arecoline (0.1-0.8 mM) on cytotoxicity to SAS cells, Results were expressed as percentage of control (as 100%, Mean ± SE). *denotes statistically significant difference between groups.