Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 4. Effect of catalase, PD153035 and AG490 on ANE-induced MMP-9 expression/secretion of SAS cells. Effect of (A) catalase (1000 and 2000 U/ml), (B) PD153035 (1 and 5 μM) and (C) AG490 (15 and 30 μM) on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 secretion in SAS oral cancer epithelial cells. Results were expressed as Mean ± SE (pg/ml). (D) Effect of PD153035 and (E) Effect of AG490 on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression, Effect of (F) catalase, (G) PD153035 and (H) AG490 on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced changes of cell viability of SAS oral cancer epithelial cells. (Mean ± SE, % of control). *denotes statistically significant difference when compared with control. #denotes statistically significant difference when compared with ANE-treated group.