Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 5. Effect of LY294002, and U0126 on ANE-induced MMP-9 expression/secretion. (A) Effect of LY294002 (10 and 20 μM) on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression as analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. One representative result was shown, (B) Effect of LY294002 on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 secretion in SAS cells as analyzed by ELISA. (C) Effect of U0126 (10 and 20 μM) on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 secretion in SAS cells as analyzed by ELISA. *denotes statistically significant difference when compared with control. #denotes statistically significant difference when compared with ANE-treated group.