Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 7. Effect of melatonin on ANE-induced MMP-9 expression and secretion. (A) Effect of melatonin (100 and 250 μg/ml) on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression (one representative result was shown) and (B) Effect of melatonin on ANE-induced MMP-9 secretion in SAS oral cancer epithelial cells. Results were expressed as Mean ± SE (pg/ml). (C) Effect of melatonin on ANE-induced changes in cell viability of SAS cells (as % of control). *denotes statistically significant difference when compared with control. #denotes statistically significant difference when compared with ANE-treated group.