Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 1 pp 481—501

A novel rhamnoside derivative PL402 up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase 3/9 to promote Aβ degradation and alleviates Alzheimer’s-like pathology

Figure 4. PL402 ameliorates cognitive deficits and improves memory retention in APP/PS1 mice. (A) Morris water maze (MWM) test of wild type (WT) mice and vehicle- or PL402 treated APP/PS1 mice. (B) Latency to platform first of each group mice in day 7 probe trial test. (C) Frequency to platform in probe trial for each group of mice in day 7 probe trial test. (D) Time spent of each group mice in the target quadrant in day 7 probe trial test. TQ, target quadrant; AR, adjacent right; OP, opposite; AL, adjacent left. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, each group n = 6, ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001 analyzed by two-way ANOVA (AD) or one-way ANOVA (BC) followed by Bonferroni test. (EG) Diagram of Novel object recognition (NOR) analysis(E). (FG) Preference scores of training phase (F) and Recognition Index of testing phase (G) during a 10-min testing phase are shown, respectively. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, WT group n = 11, APP/PS1 Vehicle group n = 11, APP/PS1 PL402 group n = 13. ∗p < 0.05, analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test.