Figure 1. Validation of the rat model of PD and LID. (A) Experimental timeline showing 6-OHDA lesioning, L-DOPA administration, behavioral testing, and animal grouping. (B) Time course of the manifestation of AIMs scored every 3 days over a period of 21 days after the final L-DOPA administration (n = 15). (C) Representative photomicrographs of TH immunohistochemical staining in coronal brain sections of the striatum and SN of rats subjected to 6-OHDA injection into the right striatum (PD) with (LID) or without (NLID) L-DOPA administration. Magnified images correspond to labeled boxes in the upper panels (n = 3). (D) Quantification of TH expression in the striatum and SN and of c-FOS, p-ERK, and ERK expression in the striatum of PD and LID rats and their corresponding control groups (n = 3–5). The signal intensity of protein bands was normalized to that of GAPDH. (E) qRT-PCR detection of c-Fos expression in the striatum of PD and LID rats and their corresponding controls. Data are shown as mean ± SEM (n = 6). **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. sham group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 vs. PD group.