Figure 10. Scheme of the Nrf2-mediated cardiac injury induced by PM2.5. Long-term exposure of PM2.5 to mice resulted in oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation via RIPK3-regulated mitochondrial disorder. In addition, autophagy initiation and dysfunction of glucose metabolism were observed in hearts of PM2.5-challenged mice. All these effects induced by PM2.5 were significantly accelerated by the loss of Nrf2, contributing to the progression of cardiomyopathy eventually.