Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 4836—4865

Nrf2 deficiency aggravates PM2.5-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancing oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation via RIPK3-regulated mitochondrial disorder

Figure 2. Nrf2 deletion accelerates cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis in PM2.5-exposed mice. (A) Measurements of heart weight. n = 15 in each group. (B) Calculation of the ratio of heart weight to body weight. n = 15 in each group. (C) RT-qPCR analysis of ANP and BNP mRNA levels in heart samples. n = 6 in each group. (D) Cardiac function was analyzed by echocardiography, and LVIDd, LVIDs, LVFS% and LVEF% were quantified. n = 15 in each group. (E) Masson’s trichrome staining (up panel) and Sirius Red staining (down panel) of cardiac sections. Scale bar was 100 μm. n = 6 in each group. (F) Calculation of fibrotic area following Masson’s trichrome and Sirius Red staining. n = 6 in each group. (G) RT-qPCR analysis of Col1a1, α-SMA, FN and TGFβ1 mRNA levels in heart samples. n = 6 in each group. (H) Western blot analysis of TGFβ1, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 protein levels in heart tissues. n = 6 in each group. Data were expressed as the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01; ns, no significant difference.