Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5516—5538

Microarray analysis of verbenalin-treated human amniotic epithelial cells reveals therapeutic potential for Alzheimer’s Disease

Figure 5. Neuroprotective effects of verbenalin (Ver) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (A) Cells were exposed to verbenalin at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 μM for 72 h. The control cells were not treated. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay and was calculated as a percentage of that in the control group (100%). The results are expressed as the means ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of independent experiments (n = 6, 96-well plate). ***p < 0.001 as compared to control. Cells were pre-treated with 20 μM verbenalin for 24 h and then exposed to 5 μM Aβ for 72 h. The results are expressed as the means ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of independent experiments (n = 6, 96-well plate). p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared with the group exposed to Aβ only (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test). (B) Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay and was calculated as a percentage of that in the control group (100%). (C) A bioluminescence assay was used to measure cellular ATP levels, and the results are shown as relative intracellular ATP levels. (D) Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a fluorescence cell-based assay, and results are shown as relative intracellular ROS (n=4).