Figure 1. Chemopreventive effect of lycopene on DMBA/TPA-induced cutaneous papilloma in vivo. (A) The workflow of animals study as described in results and methods. (B) Representative images of papillomas in the indicated groups. (C) The incidence of papillomas in different treatment groups (n=10). (D) The average numbers of papillomas per mouse in the indicated groups (n=10). The data are presented as the mean ± SD. ***p < 0.001 (versus DMBA/TPA) (E) The average numbers of papillomas per mouse in different tumor diameter groups (n=10). The data are presented as the mean ± SD. ***p < 0.001 (versus DMBA/TPA). (F) Survival rates of mice in different treatment groups within 32 weeks. (G) Presentative images of epidermal proliferation and hyperplasia in the indicated groups (40×). (Bottom) Quantitative analysis of epidermal thickness based on H&E images (n=6). The data are presented as the mean ± SD. ***p < 0.001 (versus DMBA/TPA). (H) (Left panel) Basosquamous carcinoma was observed in mouse in DMBA/TPA model group, and local invasion of basosquamous carcinoma cells can be detected into stroma (40×). (Right panel) Only the benign papillomas can be found in PA and PP mouse with intact basement membranes and hyperplasia of the overlying epidermis (40×).