Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 13 pp 12740—12749

PAK4 suppresses TNF-induced release of endothelial microparticles in HUVECs cells

Figure 1. TNF induces EMP release in vitro and in vivo. (A) EMP release analyzed by flow cytometry (FC) in HUVECs treated 24 h with increasing TNF concentrations, or thrombin (2 IU/ml). The data represent the mean values based on 1x106 cells; three independent experiments were performed. (B) EMP release analyzed by FC in untreated HUVECs, or HUVECs treated with 100 ng/ml TNF for indicated times. The data represent the mean values of EMP per 1x106 cells from three independent experiments. (C) EMP release analyzed by FC in sera of TNF-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (10 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10 mice per group) and treated with PBS or increasing doses of TNF for 24 hours. The data represent the mean values of EMP/μl; * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001, NS indicates no significance.