Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 10 pp 9534—9548

Dexmedetomidine inhibits LPS-induced proinflammatory responses via suppressing HIF1α-dependent glycolysis in macrophages

Figure 1. DEX inhibits the proinflammatory response in LPS-treated macrophages. (A) BMDMs were treated with 100 ng/ml LPS and/or 5 mM ATP and indicated concentrations of DEX for 4h. Levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. n = 3; mean ± SEM; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01. (B) BMDMs were treated with 100 ng/ml LPS and/or 5 mM ATP and 1 μM DEX for 4 h. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by real-time PCR. n = 3; mean ± SEM; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01. (C) PMs were treated with 100 ng/ml LPS and/or 5 mM ATP and indicated concentrations of DEX for 4 h. Levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. n = 3; mean ± SEM; ** P < 0.01. (D) PMs were treated with 100 ng/ml LPS and/or 5 mM ATP and 1 μM DEX for 4 h. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by real-time PCR. n = 3; mean ± SEM; * P < 0.05.