Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 13 pp 12850—12868

Glycosylation end products mediate damage and apoptosis of periodontal ligament stem cells induced by the JNK-mitochondrial pathway

Figure 2. (A) Morphology observation of the third generation PDLSCs after twenty-one days of osteogenic induction alizarin red staining(200×) (A1: Control Group; A2: Cells were treated with 10ng/mL TNF-α; A3: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA A4: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA and 10ng/mL TNF-α). (B) ALP staining of the third generation PDLSCs after twenty-one days of osteogenic induction (B1: Control Group; B2: Cells were treated with 10ng/mL TNF-α; B3: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA; B4: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA and 10ng/mL TNF-α). (C) Morphology observation of the third generation PDLSCs after twenty-one days of chondrogenic induction toluidine blue staining(200×) (C1: Control Group; C2: Cells were treated with 10ng/mL TNF-α; C3: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA; C4: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA and 10ng/mL TNF-α). (D) Morphology observation of the third generation PDLSCs after 21 days of adipogenic induction oil red O staining(100×) (D1: Control Group; D2: Cells were treated with 10ng/mL TNF-α; D3: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA; D4: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA and 10ng/mL TNF-α).