Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 15 pp 15546—15555

Glycochenodeoxycholic acid induces stemness and chemoresistance via the STAT3 signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

Figure 4. GCDC activates the STAT3 signaling pathway in HCC cells. (A, B) The mRNA expression of SOCS2, SOCS5, PTPN1, and PTPN11 was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. (C) Western blotting was used to detect the expression of SOCS2, SOCS5, PTPN1, and PTPN11. (D) The expression of STAT3 in the cell nucleus was examined by western blotting. P84 was used as an internal reference.