Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 16 pp 15978—15994

A human MMTV-like betaretrovirus linked to breast cancer has been present in humans at least since the copper age

Figure 4. PCR of DNA extracted from the dental calculus. No mouse DNA was present in the six human cases (1-6) that were positive for MMTVels. (A) A 16S rRNA V3 region; all human cases were positive, whereas NEG was the negative control. (B) Intracisternal A Particle (IAP) LTRs; all the human cases were negative, as well as the negative control, whereas the mouse DNA was positive. (C) Murine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); all human cases were negative, whereas the mouse DNA was positive. (D) Murine GADPH; all the human cases were negative, whereas the mouse DNA was positive. (E) Human GADPH; all the human cases were positive; c+: a positive human control; neg: a negative control.