Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20350—20365

Blood-based biomarkers in hypothalamic-pituitary axes for the risk of dementia or cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Figure 4. Higher concentrations of blood biomarkers in HPS axis and the risk of dementia or cognitive decline. Abbreviations: bio, bioavailable; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein.