Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 23017—23028

Autophagy is induced in human keratinocytes during human papillomavirus 11 pseudovirion entry

Figure 3. Autophagy flux is promoted by HPV11 PsVs upon entry of keratinocytes. (A, B) Western analysis and quantification of the autophagy marker proteins p62 and LC3 in NHEKs (A) or HaCaT cells (B) during HPV11 PsV entry. β-Actin was included as loading control. The data are normalized to β-Actin levels and the uninfected control, and expressed as the mean and standard deviation from three biological independent experiments. (C, D) Western analysis and quantification of p62 and LC3 in NHEKs (C) or HaCaT cells (D) during HPV11 PsV entry after pre-treatment with the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1). The data are normalized to β-Actin levels and the uninfected vehicle control, and expressed as the mean and standard deviation from three biological independent experiments. Significant differences were identified by Student’s t test. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.