Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 23017—23028

Autophagy is induced in human keratinocytes during human papillomavirus 11 pseudovirion entry

Figure 5. HPV11 PsV infections are reduced by autophagy. (A, B) Western analysis of LC3 in NHEKs (A) or HaCaT cells (B) during HPV11 PsV entry with or without rapamycin pre-treatment. LC3-II levels are normalized to β-Actin and uninfected vehicle control, and expressed as the mean and standard deviation from three biological independent experiments. (C) Infectivity assays using PsVs containing a luciferase expression vector. Luciferase activity is normalized by cell viability and presented as the mean and standard deviation from three biological independent experiments. Significant differences were identified by Student’s t test. *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.005.