Research Paper Advance Articles pp 23478—23496

Transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex as master regulators of the immunosuppressive protein galectin-9 expression in human cancer and embryonic cells

Figure 8. TGF-β induces galectin-9 expression in human cancer and embryonic but not healthy cells. THP-1 (AML), Colo-205 (colorectal cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) HaCaT (keratinocytes), primary human keratinocytes (Prim KC) as well as HEK293 (human embryonic kidney cells) were exposed for 24 to 2 ng/ml human recombinant TGF-β. Levels of cell-associated Tim-3 and galectin-9 as well as secreted galectin-9 were measured. Images are from one experiment representative of four which gave similar results. Data are shown as mean values ± SEM of four independent experiments.* - p < 0.05 vs control.