Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 2 pp 3060—3079

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal miR-146a-5p reduces microglial-mediated neuroinflammation via suppression of the IRAK1/TRAF6 signaling pathway after ischemic stroke

Treatment with hUMSC-Exos attenuates microglia-mediated inflammation and neurological deficits after ischemic stroke. (G) Red fluorescence indicates PKH26-labeled exosomes which have accessed the site of cerebral damage. Scale bar: 50 μm. (H) Microglial M1 markers IBA-1 and CD16 in the ischemic penumbra 3 days following ischemic stroke, in the control, vehicle-only, and experimental groups. Scale bar: 50 μm. Associated M1 counts are shown (A, B). (I) Microglial M2 markers IBA-1 and CD206 in the ischemic penumbra 3 days following ischemic stroke, in the control, vehicle-only, and experimental groups. Scale bar: 50 μm. Associated M2 counts - from the same animals in which M1 counts were determined - are shown (C, D). Significant differences are indicated (*p J) Lower protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the experimental group. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (experiments were performed in triplicate). Significant differences are indicated (*p

Figure 2. Treatment with hUMSC-Exos attenuates microglia-mediated inflammation and neurological deficits after ischemic stroke. (G) Red fluorescence indicates PKH26-labeled exosomes which have accessed the site of cerebral damage. Scale bar: 50 μm. (H) Microglial M1 markers IBA-1 and CD16 in the ischemic penumbra 3 days following ischemic stroke, in the control, vehicle-only, and experimental groups. Scale bar: 50 μm. Associated M1 counts are shown (A, B). (I) Microglial M2 markers IBA-1 and CD206 in the ischemic penumbra 3 days following ischemic stroke, in the control, vehicle-only, and experimental groups. Scale bar: 50 μm. Associated M2 counts - from the same animals in which M1 counts were determined - are shown (C, D). Significant differences are indicated (*p < 0.05). (J) Lower protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the experimental group. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (experiments were performed in triplicate). Significant differences are indicated (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01).