Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16656—16666

Programmed death-1 mediates venous neointimal hyperplasia in humans and rats

PD-1- and BMS-1-coated patches decrease PD-1 expression after patch venoplasty in rats. (A) Merged immunofluorescence images showing CD3 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD3 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); TGF β1 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); PCNA (green), α-actin (red) and DAPI (blue); scale bar, 100 μm; n = 6. (B) Bar graphs showing CD3 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (p *p p *p p *p p *p = p *p n = 6.

Figure 6. PD-1- and BMS-1-coated patches decrease PD-1 expression after patch venoplasty in rats. (A) Merged immunofluorescence images showing CD3 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD3 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); TGF β1 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); PCNA (green), α-actin (red) and DAPI (blue); scale bar, 100 μm; n = 6. (B) Bar graphs showing CD3 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA; *p < 0.0001), CD68 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA; *p < 0.0001), CD3 and PDL-1 dual-positive cells (p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA; *p < 0.0001), CD68 and PDL-1 dual-positive cells (p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA; *p = < 0.0001), PCNA and α-actin dual-positive cells (p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA; *p < 0.0001); n = 6.