Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16733—16748

Gut microbiota mediates cognitive impairment in young mice after multiple neonatal exposures to sevoflurane

Morris water maze test for control and sevoflurane-treated mice. (A) Experimental schedule: 3% sevoflurane was applied for 2 h daily on PND 6, 8, and 10, MWM test on PND 31–36, and fecal sample collection for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant on PND 37. (B) Body weight (Student’s t-test, p > 0.05). (C) Trace plot of control and sevoflurane-treated mice in the MWM test. (D) Escape latency (two-way ANOVA; Time: F4,72 = 67.43, p F1,18 = 43.14, p F4,72 = 3.857, p = 0.007). (E) Platform-crossing instances (Student’s t-test, p = 0.0021). (F) Time spent in the fourth quadrant (Student’s t-test, p = 0.0092). (G) Mean distance from the platform (Student’s t-test, p = 0.0041). PND: postnatal day; ANOVA: analysis of variance; MWM: Morris water maze. Data are shown as mean ± SEM (n = 10). Significance: * p p p

Figure 1. Morris water maze test for control and sevoflurane-treated mice. (A) Experimental schedule: 3% sevoflurane was applied for 2 h daily on PND 6, 8, and 10, MWM test on PND 31–36, and fecal sample collection for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant on PND 37. (B) Body weight (Student’s t-test, p > 0.05). (C) Trace plot of control and sevoflurane-treated mice in the MWM test. (D) Escape latency (two-way ANOVA; Time: F4,72 = 67.43, p < 0.001; Group: F1,18 = 43.14, p < 0.001; Interaction: F4,72 = 3.857, p = 0.007). (E) Platform-crossing instances (Student’s t-test, p = 0.0021). (F) Time spent in the fourth quadrant (Student’s t-test, p = 0.0092). (G) Mean distance from the platform (Student’s t-test, p = 0.0041). PND: postnatal day; ANOVA: analysis of variance; MWM: Morris water maze. Data are shown as mean ± SEM (n = 10). Significance: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, ns: non-significant.