Figure 3. Apremilast prevented IL-1α-induced expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in ESCs. Cells were stimulated with 5 ng/mL IL-1α in the presence or absence of 1.5 or 3 μM Apremilast for 12 hours. (A). mRNA of MMP-2 and MMP-9; (B). Protein of MMP-2 and of MMP-9 (****P < 0.0005 vs. vehicle group; #, ##, P < 0.05, 0.01 vs. IL-1α treatment group, N = 5–6).