Figure 4. Apremilast alleviated IL-1α-induced oxidative stress in ESCs. Cells were stimulated with 5 ng/mL IL-1α in the presence or absence of 1.5 or 3 μM Apremilast for 12 hours. Mitochondrial ROS (****P < 0.0005 vs. vehicle group; #, ##, P < 0.05, 0.01 vs. IL-1α treatment group, N = 6) was measured using MitoSOX Red. Scale bar, 100 μm.