Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 13 pp 17097—17117

Inhibition of heat shock proteins increases autophagosome formation, and reduces the expression of APP, Tau, SOD1 G93A and TDP-43

Fingolimod and MMF interact to reduce the expression of Tau and Tau 301L via autophagy. (A) HCT116 ATG16L1 T300 cells were transfected to express Tau-GFP or Tau 301L-GFP. After 24h, cells were treated with vehicle control, fingolimod (FTY, 100 nM), MMF (5 μM) or the drugs in combination for 6h or 12h. Cells were fixed in place and the expression of Tau determined by in-cell immuno-staining. (n = 3 +/-SD). * p B) HCT116 ATG16L1 T300 cells were transfected to express Tau-GFP and in parallel with a scrambled siRNA control or with siRNA molecules to knock down Beclin1 or ATG5. After 24h, cells were treated for 6h or 12h with vehicle control or with [fingolimod, 100 nM plus MMF, 5 μM]. Cells were fixed in place and the expression of Tau determined by in-cell immuno-staining. (n = 3 +/-SD). * p

Figure 9. Fingolimod and MMF interact to reduce the expression of Tau and Tau 301L via autophagy. (A) HCT116 ATG16L1 T300 cells were transfected to express Tau-GFP or Tau 301L-GFP. After 24h, cells were treated with vehicle control, fingolimod (FTY, 100 nM), MMF (5 μM) or the drugs in combination for 6h or 12h. Cells were fixed in place and the expression of Tau determined by in-cell immuno-staining. (n = 3 +/-SD). * p < 0.05 less than vehicle control; ** p < 0.05 less than MMF alone value. (B) HCT116 ATG16L1 T300 cells were transfected to express Tau-GFP and in parallel with a scrambled siRNA control or with siRNA molecules to knock down Beclin1 or ATG5. After 24h, cells were treated for 6h or 12h with vehicle control or with [fingolimod, 100 nM plus MMF, 5 μM]. Cells were fixed in place and the expression of Tau determined by in-cell immuno-staining. (n = 3 +/-SD). * p < 0.05 less than vehicle control.