Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 14 pp 18689—18700

Catalpol enhanced physical exercise-mediated brain functional improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder model via promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis

Combination of catalpol enhanced the effects of treadmill to reduce PTSD symptoms. (A) Experimental process to establish the CS-US induced PTSD behavioral dysfunctions. (B) Freezing time comparation before and after the US performance. (C) Daily recorded freezing time under CS stimulation in different treatment. Two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc, *p **p ***p ****p

Figure 1. Combination of catalpol enhanced the effects of treadmill to reduce PTSD symptoms. (A) Experimental process to establish the CS-US induced PTSD behavioral dysfunctions. (B) Freezing time comparation before and after the US performance. (C) Daily recorded freezing time under CS stimulation in different treatment. Two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001.