Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 14 pp 19013—19027

Glucagon-like peptide-1 attenuated carboxymethyl lysine induced neuronal apoptosis via peroxisome proliferation activated receptor-γ

Levels of apoptosis were elevated in hippocampus of diabetic rats. “a” in (A) showed elevated CML levels in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats (P). “a” in (B) showed decreased GLP-1 levels in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats (P). Results in (C) showed increased apoptosis in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats. Results in (D) showed down-regulated PPAR-γ and GLP-1R in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats. (E) Showed the western blotting results of bcl2, bax, GLP-1R and PPAR-γ. “a” of (F) showed down-regulated bcl2, GLP-1R and PPAR-γ levels and up-regulated bax levels in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats (all P). Data are represented as mean ± SD; n=4 per group for results of ELISA. n=3 per group for results of western blotting.

Figure 4. Levels of apoptosis were elevated in hippocampus of diabetic rats. “a” in (A) showed elevated CML levels in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats (P<0.05). “a” in (B) showed decreased GLP-1 levels in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats (P<0.05). Results in (C) showed increased apoptosis in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats. Results in (D) showed down-regulated PPAR-γ and GLP-1R in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats. (E) Showed the western blotting results of bcl2, bax, GLP-1R and PPAR-γ. “a” of (F) showed down-regulated bcl2, GLP-1R and PPAR-γ levels and up-regulated bax levels in hippocampus of diabetic rats, compared with control rats (all P<0.05). Data are represented as mean ± SD; n=4 per group for results of ELISA. n=3 per group for results of western blotting.