Figure 1. Influence of HSI and LTE on heart. (A) Heart diastolic period. (B) Heart systolic period. (C) Heart period. (D) Diastolic diameter. (E) Systolic diameter. (F) Fractional shortening. (G) Arrhythmia index. (H) Microscopic image of cardiac function from M-mode trace in 5-week-old Drosophila. It can be observed that HSI could increase heart period and arrhythmia, and it could reduce fractional shortening. LTE reduced heart period and arrhythmia, and it could increase fractional shortening. (I) Cardiac salt expression level. (J) Cardiac dTOR expression. (K) Cardiac PGC-1α expression. (L) Cardiac dFOXO expression. (M) Cardiac SOD activity level. (N) Cardiac MDA level. (O) Ultrastructure images of myocardium in 5-week old flies and the white arrows refer to the myofibril in the images, and the yellow arrows refer to mitochondria. Independent-sample t-tests were used to assess differences in 1-week old flies and 5-week old flies in flies. Using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by an LSD test among the group w1118, w1118+HSI, and w1118+HSI+E. Data are represented as means ± SEM. *P<0.05; **P <0.01. Sample size was 30 hearts for each group. For RT-PCR and ELISA, sample size was 80 hearts for each group, and measurements were taken 3 times.