Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 16 pp 20748—20761

Enriched environment remedies cognitive dysfunctions and synaptic plasticity through NMDAR-Ca2+-Activin A circuit in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats

EE activates Wnt/β-catenin pathway in CCH rats. (A) Western blot were used to detect the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway associated proteins. Levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, CyclinD1, GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β. (B) Levels of GAP43, SYN, PSD-95, MAP-2. *p #p $p N = 3. Sham group, treated with an equal volume of vehicle; CCH group, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and no treatment; EE group, CCH and treated with EE. EEF group, CCH and treated with EE and FSH. EED group, CCH and treated with EE and DKK-1. *p #p $p

Figure 5. EE activates Wnt/β-catenin pathway in CCH rats. (A) Western blot were used to detect the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway associated proteins. Levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, CyclinD1, GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β. (B) Levels of GAP43, SYN, PSD-95, MAP-2. *p < 0.05, vs. Sham group; #p < 0.05, vs. CCH group. $p < 0.05, vs. EE group. N = 3. Sham group, treated with an equal volume of vehicle; CCH group, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and no treatment; EE group, CCH and treated with EE. EEF group, CCH and treated with EE and FSH. EED group, CCH and treated with EE and DKK-1. *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05, $p < 0.05.