Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 20935—20961

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates vascular dysfunction and amyloid burden in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model and in elderly patients

HBOT reduces amyloid plaques in the hippocampal area of 6-month old 5XFAD mice. Amyloid plaques were visualized by immunostaining with anti-Aβ antibodies (4G8). (A) Representative images of Aβ in the hippocampal field of HBO-treated 5XFAD (n=10, lower panel) and control 5XFAD mice (n=10, upper panel); left and middle panels, x4 magnification, scale bar: 1000 μm; right panel, x20 magnification, scale bar: 200 μm. (B) Quantification of the percentage of hippocampal area occupied by plaques. (C) Number of plaques. (D) Mean size of plaques. (E, F) Soluble Aβ was initially extracted from hippocampi with TBS by ultracentrifugation and then insoluble Aβ was extracted with 70% formic acid (FA) after ultra-centrifugation. ELISA analysis of soluble (E) and insoluble (F) Aβ40 and Aβ42 in hippocampal lysates of HBO-treated 5XFAD and control 5XFAD mice (n = 5/group). (B, C, F) -t-test, (D, F)- welch correction t-test. Values represent means ± SEM. *P P

Figure 1. HBOT reduces amyloid plaques in the hippocampal area of 6-month old 5XFAD mice. Amyloid plaques were visualized by immunostaining with anti-Aβ antibodies (4G8). (A) Representative images of Aβ in the hippocampal field of HBO-treated 5XFAD (n=10, lower panel) and control 5XFAD mice (n=10, upper panel); left and middle panels, x4 magnification, scale bar: 1000 μm; right panel, x20 magnification, scale bar: 200 μm. (B) Quantification of the percentage of hippocampal area occupied by plaques. (C) Number of plaques. (D) Mean size of plaques. (E, F) Soluble Aβ was initially extracted from hippocampi with TBS by ultracentrifugation and then insoluble Aβ was extracted with 70% formic acid (FA) after ultra-centrifugation. ELISA analysis of soluble (E) and insoluble (F) Aβ40 and Aβ42 in hippocampal lysates of HBO-treated 5XFAD and control 5XFAD mice (n = 5/group). (B, C, F) -t-test, (D, F)- welch correction t-test. Values represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01.