Figure 5. AS-Exos activate Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in the hippocampal neurons of TBI-induced rat brains. (A) Western blot analysis shows Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression levels in the hippocampus of TBI+AS-Exo, Sham, and Sham+AS-Exo groups of rats at 48 h after TBI or sham surgery. (B–E) Bar graphs show the relative expression levels of (B) Nrf2 and (C) HO-1 proteins, (D) Nrf2 and (E) HO-1 mRNAs in the hippocampus tissues from the four groups of rats at 48 h after TBI or sham surgery. All data are represented as means ± SEM (n = 5 per group). Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction. #P < 0.05 or ##P < 0.01 vs. Sham group; *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 vs. TBI group.