Figure 1. A2E induces the transactivation of all PPAR isoforms. Effect of increasing concentration of A2E on endogenous PPAR transactivation (A). Effect of A2E (20 μM) on the transactivation of over-expressed PPAR-α (B), PPAR β/δ (C) and PPAR-γ (D). Effect of selective PPAR agonists GW9578 (GW95, 20 μM), GW0742 (GW07, 30 μM) and troglitazone (TGZ, 20 μM) on the respective transactivation of over-expressed PPAR-α (E), PPAR β/δ (F) and PPAR-γ (G). Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001 compared to control (CONT) corresponding to DMSO alone added to the medium. (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s post-test).