Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22040—22058

A2E-induced inflammation and angiogenesis in RPE cells in vitro are modulated by PPAR-α, -β/δ, -γ, and RXR antagonists and by norbixin

Norbixin inhibits the transactivation of RXRs induced by A2E. Effect of increasing concentrations of A2E on RXR transactivation (A). Effect of A2E (20 μM) and HX630 (5 μM) on RXR transactivation (B). Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and A2E (20 μM) + NBX (20 μM) on RXR transactivation (C). Effect of HX630 (5 μM) alone or in competition with NBX (20 μM) on RXR transactivation (D). Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–5. ** or ##p ***p ****p

Figure 7. Norbixin inhibits the transactivation of RXRs induced by A2E. Effect of increasing concentrations of A2E on RXR transactivation (A). Effect of A2E (20 μM) and HX630 (5 μM) on RXR transactivation (B). Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and A2E (20 μM) + NBX (20 μM) on RXR transactivation (C). Effect of HX630 (5 μM) alone or in competition with NBX (20 μM) on RXR transactivation (D). Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–5. ** or ##p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001 compared to CONT (DMSO alone) or to A2E, respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett's post-test).