Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22588—22610

GPR43 regulation of mitochondrial damage to alleviate inflammatory reaction in sepsis

GPR43 gene trigger NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage by regulation of mitochondrial fission. GPR43 protein expression in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (A); GPR43 protein expression in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (B); NLRP3, Caspase-1 and IL-1β protein expressions in cells and IL-1β protein expression in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (C); NLRP3, Caspase-1 and IL-1β protein expressions in cells and IL-1β protein expression in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (D); IL-1β and SOD levels in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (E, F); IL-1β and SOD levels in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (G, H); Representative electron microscopy images, area void of cristae (minimum of 40 mitochondria) was used to measure mitochondrial cristae density (I), Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay (J), and Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay and dissipation of Δψm by JC-1 assay (K) in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist; Representative electron microscopy images, area void of cristae (minimum of 40 mitochondria) was used to measure mitochondrial cristae density (L), Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay (J), and Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay and dissipation of Δψm by JC-1 assay (M) in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (N). Negative, negative control; GPR43, over-expression of GPR43; NS, si-negative control; Si-GPR43, down-regulation of GPR43; LPS+ATP+4-CMTB, macrophage by treated with LP+ATP+4-CMTB. ##p

Figure 3. GPR43 gene trigger NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage by regulation of mitochondrial fission. GPR43 protein expression in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (A); GPR43 protein expression in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (B); NLRP3, Caspase-1 and IL-1β protein expressions in cells and IL-1β protein expression in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (C); NLRP3, Caspase-1 and IL-1β protein expressions in cells and IL-1β protein expression in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (D); IL-1β and SOD levels in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (E, F); IL-1β and SOD levels in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (G, H); Representative electron microscopy images, area void of cristae (minimum of 40 mitochondria) was used to measure mitochondrial cristae density (I), Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay (J), and Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay and dissipation of Δψm by JC-1 assay (K) in macrophage by up-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist; Representative electron microscopy images, area void of cristae (minimum of 40 mitochondria) was used to measure mitochondrial cristae density (L), Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay (J), and Calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay and dissipation of Δψm by JC-1 assay (M) in macrophage by down-regulation of GPR43 and LPS+ATP+GPR43 agonist (N). Negative, negative control; GPR43, over-expression of GPR43; NS, si-negative control; Si-GPR43, down-regulation of GPR43; LPS+ATP+4-CMTB, macrophage by treated with LP+ATP+4-CMTB. ##p<0.01 compared with negative control or si-negative control.