Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. Accumulating evidence indicates that non-coding RNAs are strongly implicated in AD-associated pathophysiology. However, the role of these ncRNAs remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used microarray analysis technology to characterize the expression patterns of circular RNAs (circRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs in hippocampal tissue from Aβ1-42-induced AD model rats, to integrate interaction data and thus provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying AD. A total of 555 circRNAs, 183 miRNAs and 319 mRNAs were identified to be significantly dysregulated (fold-change ≥ 2.0 and p-value < 0.05) in the hippocampus of AD rats. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was then used to validate the expression of randomly-selected circRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs. Next, GO and KEGG pathway analyses were performed to further investigate ncRNAs biological functions and potential mechanisms. In addition, we constructed circRNA-miRNA and competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks to determine functional interactions between ncRNAs and mRNAs. Our results suggest the involvement of different ncRNA expression patterns in the pathogenesis of AD. Our findings provide a novel perspective for further research into AD pathogenesis and might facilitate the development of novel therapeutics targeting ncRNAs.