Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 6 pp 1832—1849
White light emitting diode induces autophagy in hippocampal neuron cells through GSK-3-mediated GR and RORα pathways
- 1 MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P. R. China
- 2 Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P. R. China
Received: August 23, 2018 Accepted: March 11, 2018 Published: March 28, 2019https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101878
How to Cite
Copyright: Yang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Autophagy plays an important role in cell survival under diverse stress conditions. Here, we show that white LED light exposure for 24 h significantly activated autophagy-related genes and increased autophagosome formation in hippocampal neural cells (HT-22). Concurrently, the rhythmic pattern of clock-related gene expression was disrupted, which was associated with augmented expression of SIRT1, AMPK and retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα). SR1001, a specific inhibitor of RORα, protected the cells from light-induced activation of autophagy. Moreover, light exposure increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. GR inhibitor RU486 prevented light-induced up-regulation of RORα and the activation of autophagy. These changes were associated with enhanced glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity and its specific inhibitor CHIR-99021 significantly rescued light-induced autophagy and augmented GR, RORα and autophagy-related proteins. Furthermore, GSK-3 was identified as an upstream regulator of GR/RORα signaling as it was not affected by GR or RORα inhibitors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GSK-3-mediated GR/RORα signaling pathway is involved in white LED light-induced autophagy in hippocampal neuron cells.