Aging-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and force increases the risk of falls, impairs mobility, and leads to a reduced quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improving morphological and metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle in older adults, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Aged female rats underwent HIIT and MICT for 8 months, and their differential impacts on skeletal muscle proteome were investigated. HIIT resulted in a larger improvement in grip strength and fiber cross-sectional area, with similar increases in inclined plane performance and time to exhaustion. Proteomic analysis showed that common training adaptations of both protocols included changes to muscle contraction, focal adhesion signaling, mitochondrial function, apoptosis and regeneration, and anti-oxidation, whereas protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and adipocytokine signaling were specifically altered in the MICT and HIIT groups, respectively. Immunoblotting showed that upregulation of the adiponectin/AMPK signaling pathway may be associated with improvements in autophagy, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in aged skeletal muscle following HIIT. Thus, understanding the molecular differences in training adaptations from these two exercise modalities may aid in combatting sarcopenia.