The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is characterized by a more than tenfold higher life expectancy compared to another rodent species of the same size, namely, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). We used mass spectrometric metabolomics to analyze circulating plasma metabolites in both species at different ages. Interspecies differences were much more pronounced than age-associated alterations in the metabolome. Such interspecies divergences affected multiple metabolic pathways involving amino, bile and fatty acids as well as monosaccharides and nucleotides. The most intriguing metabolites were those that had previously been linked to pro-health and antiaging effects in mice and that were significantly increased in the long-lived rodent compared to its short-lived counterpart. This pattern applies to α-tocopherol (also known as vitamin E) and polyamines (in particular cadaverine, N8-acetylspermidine and N1,N8-diacetylspermidine), all of which were more abundant in naked mole-rats than in mice. Moreover, the age-associated decline in spermidine and N1-acetylspermidine levels observed in mice did not occur, or is even reversed (in the case of N1-acetylspermidine) in naked mole-rats. In short, the present metabolomics analysis provides a series of testable hypotheses to explain the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats.