Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that ranks as the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries. In our study, genes differentially expressed between AD and healthy individuals were identified and used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. The AD-related PPI network was used to identify functional modules, and enrichment analysis showed that they were significantly involved in “Alzheimer’s disease”, “apoptosis”, and related pathways. We predicted non-coding RNAs and transcription factors that may regulate the functional modules. The expression of hub genes and transcription factors was validated in an independent data set. The results in this study provide several candidates for further research on mechanisms of AD pathogenesis.