Renal fibrosis is an inevitable consequence of parenchymal scarring and is the common final pathway that mediates almost all progressive renal diseases. Adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, possesses potent anti-insulin, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties. Reportedly, adiponectin serves as an important messenger that facilitates complex interactions between adipose tissue and other metabolically related organs. In recent years, a growing body of evidence supports adiponectin involvement in renal fibrosis. These studies provide a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of adiponectin in renal fibrosis and also offer a potential preventive and therapeutic target for renal fibrosis. In this review, the physiological role of adiponectin is briefly introduced, and then the mechanism of adiponectin-mediated renal fibrosis and the related signaling pathways are described. Finally, we summarize the findings regarding the clinical value of adiponectin in renal fibrotic diseases and prospected its application potential.