Research Paper Advance Articles
Low DAPK1 expression correlates with poor prognosis and sunitinib resistance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma
- 1 Department of Urology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
- 2 Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Received: August 11, 2019 Accepted: June 18, 2020 Published: November 16, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103638
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
We investigated the prognostic significance of Death-Associated Protein Kinase 1 (DAPK1) and its role in sunitinib resistance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). DAPK1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues than normal kidney tissues in TCGA-KIRC dataset (n=428). Both overall survival and disease-free survival were significantly shorter in ccRCC patients with low DAPK1 expression than those with high DAPK1 expression. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that low DAPK1 expression correlated with poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed that DAPK1 expression was an independent prognostic indicator in ccRCC. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that low DAPK1 expression correlates with upregulation of pathways related to metastasis, drug resistance, hypoxia and invasiveness in ccRCC patients. Sunitinib-resistant ccRCC cells show significantly lower DAPK1 mRNA and protein levels than sunitinib-sensitive ccRCC cells. DAPK1 overexpression enhances apoptosis in sunitinib-resistant ccRCC cells via the ATF6-dependent ER stress pathway. Xenograft tumors derived from DAPK1-overxpressing ccRCC cells were significantly smaller than the controls in nude mice. Our finding demonstrates that low DAPK1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator that correlates with ccRCC progression and sunitinib resistance.