Background: Numerous studies proved that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the progression of multifarious diseases, especially in some carcinomas. As a potential tumor biomarker, plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1) is involved in the development and progression of multifarious cancers. Nevertheless, the intrinsic and concrete molecular mechanism of PVT1 in bladder cancer still remained unclear, which is also the dilemma faced in many non-coding RNA studies.

Results: Our research revealed that PVT1 was significantly higher expression in bladder carcinoma specimens and cell lines. Further experiments indicated that knockdown or overexpression of PVT1 restrained or promoted the malignant phenotype and WNT/β-catenin signaling in bladder cancer cells. Meanwhile miR-194-5p was in contrast and miR-194-5p could partially reverse the function of PVT1 in malignant bladder tumor cells. As a microRNA sponge, PVT1 actively promotes the expression of b-cells lymphoma-2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) to sponge miR-194-5p and subsequently increases malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer cells. Therefore, it performs a carcinogenic effect and miR-194-5p as the opposite function, and serves as an antioncogene in the bladder carcinomas pathogenesis.

Conclusion: PVT1-miR-194-5p-BCLAF1 axis is involved in the malignant progression and development of bladder carcinomas. Experiments revealed that PVT1 has a significant regulatory effect on bladder cancer (BC) and can be used as a clinical diagnostic marker and a therapeutic molecular marker for patients suffering from BC.

Methods: In urothelial bladder carcinoma specimens and cell lines, the relative expression levels of PVT1 and miR-194-5p were detected by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Through experiments such as loss-function and over-expression, the biological effects of PVT1 and miR-194-5p on the proliferation, migration, apoptosis and tumorigenicity were explored in bladder cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation, proteomics experiments, dual luciferase reporter gene analysis, western blot and other methods were adopted to investigate the PVT1 potential mechanism in bladder carcinomas.