Abstract

Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is considered an adverse factor predicting poor prognosis in various cancers, but the significance of PD-L1 expression for the prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in PCa.

Methods: Studies were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase before March 23, 2020. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained to assess the results. Begg’s test was applied to evaluate publication bias.

Results: Fourteen studies involving 3133 cases were analyzed. The pooled data showed that both PD-L1 protein expression and PD-L1 DNA methylation (mPD-L1) were negatively associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival, with HRs of 1.67 (95% CI = 1.38-2.06, p < 0.001) and 2.23 (95% CI = 1.51-3.29, p < 0.001), respectively. In addition, PD-L1 overexpression was significantly related to advanced tumor stage (OR = 1.40, 95% CI= 1.13-1.75, p = 0.003), positive surgical margin (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.03-1.78, p = 0.028), higher Gleason score (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.35-2.42, p < 0.001) and androgen receptor positivity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.61-3.01, p < 0.001), while no significant correlation with age (p = 0.122), preoperative PSA (p = 0.796) or nodal status (p = 0.113) was observed.

Conclusions: The study revealed that high expression of PD-L1 was related to unfavorable prognosis and advanced clinicopathological factors in PCa patients.