Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) serves as a prevailing global malignancy with severe mortality and extremely unsatisfactory prognosis, in which autophagy is a fundamental process in liver cancer pathogenesis, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as a type of well-recognized non-coding regulators and contribute to the modulation of liver cancer development, from the aspects of diagnosis, progression, and therapy. Here, we aimed to investigate the function of hsa_microRNA-513b-5p (miR-513b-5p) in regulating autophagy during HCC progression. Specifically, our data showed that miR-513b-5p mimic reduced the LC3-II and beclin1 expression but enhanced p62 expression in HCC cells. MiR-513b-5p repressed liver cancer cell proliferation, migration/invasion, and induced apoptosis in vitro. Crucially, miR-513b-5p attenuated tumor growth of liver cancer cells in vivo. In the mechanical investigation, we identified that PIK3R3 mRNA 3′UTR was targeted by miR-513b-5p and miR-513b-5p suppressed PIK3R3 expression. PIK3R3 overexpression partly reversed miR-513b-5p-mediated autophagy, proliferation, and apoptosis of liver cancer cells. Consequently, we concluded that miR-513b-5p repressed autophagy during the malignant progression of HCC by targeting PIK3R3. MiR-513b-5p may be applied as a therapeutic target for HCC.