The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a family of cell surface proteins with crucial roles in the regulation of cell adhesion, cell proliferation to migration, proteolysis and cell signaling transduction pathways. Among these enzymes, the ADAM17 shows significant effects in the “ectodomain shedding” of its substrates such as cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor α, TNFα), growth factors (e.g., epidermal growth factor, EGF), adhesion proteins (e.g., L-selectin), and their receptors (e.g., IL-6R and TNFα). Several studies focus on the underlying molecular mechanisms of ADAM17 in diseased conditions. Here, we took several different approaches to elucidate the function of ADAM17, the participation of ADAM17 in several human diseases, and the potential as targeted therapy reagents. As more and more studies verify the miRNA-mediated expression variation of ADAM17, the specific regulation network of miRNAs and ADAM17 was exploited in this review as well.